Monthly Archives: July 2012

Coffee drinkers reassured about health risks

Coffee drinkers reassured about health risks

CBC News

Posted: May 16, 2012 4:58 PM ET

Last Updated: May 17, 2012 11:41 AM ET

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Coffee drinkers can be reassured about the health risks of enjoying their cup of java, doctors say.

In a study of more than 402,000 men and women aged 50 to 71 in the U.S., researchers looked at the association between coffee consumption and mortality.

Compared with men who did not drink coffee, those who drank six or more cups a day had a 10 per cent lower risk of death, Neal Freedman of the nutritional epidemiology branch at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and his co-authors reported in Wednesday’s issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

“Our results provide reassurance with respect to the concern that coffee drinking might adversely affect health,” the researchers concluded.

Participants who had cancer or cardiovascular disease when the study began were excluded from the analysis.

Coffee contains more than 1,000 compounds besides caffeine that might be important to health.

Coffee contains more than 1,000 compounds besides caffeine that might be important to health. (Adeel Halim/Reuters)The 13-year long observational study could not conclude if the inverse relationship between between coffee consumption and mortality reflects cause and effect, the authors said.

The beverage contains more than 1,000 compounds besides caffeine that might be important to health.

“There continues to be no good evidence that coffee drinking is harmful in really any way,” said Dr. Martin Myers, a cardiologist at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto.

Myers’ research concluded caffeine doesn’t increase blood pressure or cause heart rhythm problems.

Coffee and cancer

In previous studies, heart attacks were actually related to smoking rather than coffee. The latest paper also showed significant interactions between smoking and coffee consumption for risk of death from cancer.

There was an association between coffee consumption and deaths from cancer in men.

“It is not clear to us why there was a modest positive association in men but not women in our study,” Freedman said in an email. “Differences in men and women for this outcome could reflect chance, as previous studies have generally not found an association.”

Regular consumption of coffee might be helpful for Type 2 diabetes and perhaps cardiovascular disease and it doesn’t do anything for cancer, said Frank Hu, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard University in Boston, who reported similar mortality findings in 2008.

Coffee drinkers also tended to smoke, drink more than three alcoholic drinks a day, eat more red meat and showed less healthy behaviours like engaging in vigorous physical activity compared with those who did not drink coffee.

Consumption increases

The researchers asked whether coffee drinkers had caffeinated beverages more than half the time but they did not collect data on how the coffee was prepared.

At a coffee shop in Toronto, patrons were pleased to hear the news.

“I just worry about drinking too much caffeine and being sort of addicted to it,” said Jack Mesquita, who normally drinks three or four espressos a day and sometimes has a cappuccino or coffee.

“It is going to encourage me isn’t it?” he said with a laugh.

Another customer, Christopher Gonzalez, doesn’t have more than two cups a day and says lately he’s been trying to stick to one, mostly in the morning to help wake up.

“Coffee itself in my opinion is not bad for you at all,” Gonzalez said. “But sugar is and I can not take my coffee without sugar or sweetener so that’s the only reason I limit it.”

Coffee consumption increased to 90 litres per person in 2009, an increase of 14 litres per person compared to 1989, according to Statistics Canada.

The research was funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s division of cancer epidemiology and genetics.

With files from CBC’s Pauline Dakin and Melanie Glanz

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Posted by on July 24, 2012 in Uncategorized



Sip, Spit, Grade: Coffee Experts Crown Colombia’s Best Beans

Photo: Sivan LewinIf it’s springtime in Brazil it must be a Cup of Excellence.
Photo: Sivan Lewin

It’s springtime in Colombia, and coffee experts from every part of the globe have convened in Santa Marta, a small city on the Caribbean coast. It is time to award the coffee industry’s most prestigious prize. The taste mavens make ready: Alberto Trujillo is deep into his pre-sip calisthenics, which consist of knee bends and alternating leg shakes. The Tijuanan has to prime his body, nose, and mouth for the so-called cupping that’s about to commence. As any java snob can tell you, to cup is to scrutinize the tastes and aromas of freshly brewed coffee. But Trujillo is no ordinary java snob, and what he’s girding for is no ordinary cupping. He has been certified by the Coffee Quality Institute as a licensed Q Grader, a person who can boast experience in everything from roast identification to sensory triangulation. And he’s about to serve as a judge in the annual Cup of Excellence competition.

Alongside Trujillo stands Geoff Watts, vice president of coffee and an unroasted-bean buyer for the Chicago gourmet retailer Intelligentsia Coffee & Tea (winner of Roast magazine’s 2007 Macro-Roaster of the Year award). It’s early morning, the day’s competition will begin in short order, and Watts is sucking deep breaths, recalibrating his olfactory system, waiting for his mouth to reset. “Toothpaste is insidious,” he murmurs.

Trujillo, Watts, and 18 other coffee connoisseurs will soon sample the 29 brews that have made it to the semifinals. Ten of these sit in front of each judge, in identical white cups with only a number to identify them, meticulously arranged in 20 straight lines on six broad tables. Each cup holds 11.5 grams of ground beans, measured out to the hundredth of a gram.

The competition began four weeks before, when 513 fincas (farms) from across this coffee-obsessed nation submitted samples of their finest unroasted beans. Now, after marathon tasting sessions with Colombian judges, the contestants have been whittled down to the chosen few displayed on the white tablecloths of this convention center. In the three hour-long cupping trials that will soon commence, a panel of internationally renowned tasters will reject half of the remaining lots. Tomorrow Trujillo, Watts, and their cohorts will rank Colombia’s top coffees and name the champion.

The vibe among the judges is more geeky than gastronomical. The majority of them are roasting techs and quality-control wonks decked out in socks and sandals. Now they advance toward the cupping tables, clutching clipboards and calculators. Meanwhile, the heavyset chief judge, Paul Songer, tells me about the future of his noble calling. He earned his tasting bona fides after a two-year program in Applied Sensory and Consumer Science at UC Davis, and he believes that coffee gourmandism has the potential to rival oenophilia’s cultish obsessiveness. Watts notes that while the fruit of the vine incorporates about 200 different taste-bestowing elements, more than 800 distinct flavor- and aroma-imparting compounds have been detected in java. “In 30 years or so,” he says, “our taste in coffee will match our taste in wine.”

Of course, this bold future of coffee is already here — it’s just insufficiently blended. The elaborate rituals of, say, a Blue Bottle coffee shop already make a $4 Starbucks latte look like Folgers. But the fetishization of coffee has yet to extend beyond an elite circle of urban stimulant junkies. It will take all the business acumen and marketing wherewithal of coffee nerds like Songer and Watts to see the rest of us through to the day when the humble bean will become one of the most carefully cultivated crops in the world, when a cup of joe will explode into a stratosphere of price and a near-infinite selection of exotic varietals, each as renowned in its own right as Pinot Noir or Cabernet Sauvignon.

Everyone in this room is banking on the prospect.

The first Cup of Excellence competition was held 12 years ago in Brazil. Any farmer in the nation could submit beans for consideration. A panel of importers, roasters, and expert sippers selected a winner, which was then sold for exorbitant sums in an Internet auction. Susie Spindler, executive director of the Alliance for Coffee Excellence, masterminded the format, which was exported to countries across Latin America and to Rwanda. She now has her eyes set on Burundi, Kenya, and Tanzania. “Cup of Excellence has completely changed the infrastructure of how coffees are sold,” she says.

Once upon a time, coffee-growing countries were focused solely on maximizing the volume of beans produced. But the more that bean quality has affected price, the more impassioned coffee-producing nations have become about divergent strains and varietals. At last year’s Colombian Cup of Excellence, the winning beans, called Finca La Loma, caused a scandal. They garnered a score of 94.92, the highest in the history of the Colombian coffee industry, and judges declared that the velvety brew was exceptionally sweet and smacked of clover and watermelon. A 2,000-pound microlot sold at auction to a consortium of international buyers for $40.09 a pound, which translated to a staggering street value of $260 a kilo in Japan.

All this was good news for the peasant who produced Finca La Loma on his 20-acre coffee patch. But it was also good news for the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, a nonprofit that represents the country’s half million growers. The organization, known by the nickname Fedecafé, trumpeted the fact that Finca La Loma was Castillo, a newfangled bean varietal bred by its scientific arm. This hybrid had been designed to withstand the dreaded Colombian coffee rust, a fungus that can devastate entire fincas. At Fedecafé’s behest, growers across the country had ripped out heirloom strains like Bourbon, Caturra, and Típica and replaced them with Castillo. But some farmers resisted, largely because they were not convinced that Castillo tasted quite as delicioso as Colombia’s traditional varietals.

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Posted by on July 18, 2012 in Uncategorized



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Posted by on July 15, 2012 in Uncategorized



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Rwanda Cafe Femenino
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The Just Us! Co-op set out in 1995 to become Canada’s first Fair Trade coffee roaster.  It was a small, but bold experiment to show that the coffee business, and all businesses, could be done differently, putting “People and the Planet before Profits”™ locally and globally.

We wanted to make connections with small-scale organic coffee farmers around the world and conscientious consumers in Atlantic Canada and beyond.

Eventually, we would also get into tea, chocolate and sugar but our collective aim was always the same:

To come together to do something meaningful, to make a difference, to make it exciting and hopefully to make it minimally profitable so we can continue to have our jobs.

Thank you for your continued interest, collaboration and support.

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Posted by on July 15, 2012 in Uncategorized




2012 Annual Conference
November 1,2012– at the Granite Club

More details to follow> 

– The Coffee Association of Canada exists to undertake a leadership and spokesperson role to effectively address collective industry issues.

– The Association will enhance the coffee beverage experience by providing members and consumers with opportunities to improve coffee beverage knowledge and skills.

Click here for more information


Please visit the NEW 
Coffee and Health website

Offered as an educational resource for both consumers and healthcare professionals, highlights and summarizes current research on relevant topics about coffee.

Press Releases
– Summer heat alert: Iced coffee shows surge in popularity…
click here to read on

Press Releases
– Winners Announced for the First Western and Central Region Canadian Barista Competitions
click here to read on

Brazilians decode coffee genome 
click here to read on

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Posted by on July 13, 2012 in Uncategorized



For most Canadians, coffee is part of the fabric of everyday life. It can be a morning ritual, a mid-morning pick me up, or an after dinner treat. Ever versatile, coffee can be savoured alone or with friends and conversation.

What coffee doesn’t have to be is a guilty pleasure. The truth is that coffee is a safe and natural beverage choice. In fact, an emerging body of credible scientific research suggests that coffee may have a preventative role in various diseases, including various cancers, diabetes and Parkinson’s’ disease to name a few.

Offered as an educational resource for both consumers and healthcare professionals, highlights and summarizes current research on relevant topics. The Coffee Association of Canada invites you to explore the world of coffee and health and suggests you discuss any personal health issues with an appropriate professional who is familiar with your specific medical conditions.

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Posted by on July 13, 2012 in Uncategorized



Health effects of coffee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The health effects of coffee have been studied to determine how coffee drinking affects humans. Coffee contains several compounds which are known to affect human body chemistry. The coffee bean itself contains chemicals which are mild psychotropics for humans as a defense mechanism of the Coffea plant. These chemicals are toxic in large doses, or even in their normal amount when consumed by many creatures which may otherwise have threatened the beans in the wild. Coffee contains caffeine, which acts as a stimulant.

Recent research has uncovered additional stimulating effects of coffee which are not related to its caffeine content. Coffee contains a currently unknown chemical agent which stimulates the production of cortisone and adrenaline, two stimulating hormones.[1]

A May 2012 study by the New England Journal of Medicine found that, during the course of their study, coffee drinkers “who drank at least two or three cups a day were about 10 percent or 15 percent less likely to die for any reason during the 13 years of the study.”[2] The researchers who conducted the study said that this doesn’t necessarily provide a cause-and-effect relationship, but will help point other researchers in the right direction.[3]

For occasions when one wants to enjoy the flavor of coffee with only low stimulation, decaffeinated coffee (also called decaf) is available. This is coffee from which most of the caffeine has been removed, by the Swiss water process (which involves the soaking of raw beans to remove the caffeine) or the use of a chemical solvent such as trichloroethylene (“tri“), or the more popular methylene chloride, in a similar process. Another solvent used is ethyl acetate; the resultant decaffeinated coffee is marketed as “natural decaf” because ethyl acetate is naturally present in fruit. Extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide has also been employed.

Decaffeinated coffee usually loses some flavor compared to normal coffee. There are also coffee alternatives that resemble coffee in taste but contain no caffeine. These are available both in ground form for brewing and in instant form.

Caffeine dependency and withdrawal symptoms are well-documented.




[edit]All-cause mortality

In women, coffee consumption significantly decreases all-cause mortality, apparently decreasing somewhat linearly to a relative risk of approximately 0.85 for those drinking 3 cups per day compared to those who consume no coffee, but the relative risk then remains almost the same for up to 6 cups per day, according to a large prospective cohort study.[4] In men, these beneficial effects were not as great, in fact with an increased risk for those drinking approximately one cup every other day compared to those drinking none, but yet having a significant trend towards less mortality for those who drink more than 2 cups per day compared to those who drink none.[4] Results were similar for decaffeinated coffee.[4]

[edit]Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia

Several studies comparing moderate coffee drinkers (defined as 3–5 cups per day) with light coffee drinkers (defined as 0–2 cups per day) found that those who drank more coffee were significantly less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease later in life.[5][6] A longitudinal study in 2009 found that moderate coffee drinkers had reduced risk of developing dementia in addition to Alzheimer’s disease.[7]

[edit]Reduced risk of gallstone disease

Drinking caffeinated coffee has been correlated with a lower incidence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in both men[8] and women[9] in two studies performed by the Harvard School of Public Health. A lessened risk was not seen in those who drank decaffeinated coffee. A recent study showed that roast coffee protected primary neuronal cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.[10]

[edit]Reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease

A study comparing heavy coffee drinkers (3.5 cups a day) with non-drinkers found that the coffee drinkers were significantly less likely to develop Parkinson’s disease later in life.[11] Likewise, a second study found an inverse relationship between the amount of coffee regularly drunk and the likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease.[12]

[edit]Cognitive performance

Many people drink coffee for its ability to increase short term recall.[13]

Likewise, in tests of simple reaction time, choice reaction time, incidental verbal memory, and visuospatial reasoning, participants who regularly drank coffee were found to perform better on all tests, with a positive relationship between test scores and the amount of coffee regularly drunk. Elderly participants were found to have the largest effect associated with regular coffee drinking.[14] Another study found that women over the age of 80 performed significantly better on cognitive tests if they had regularly drunk coffee over their lifetimes.[15]

[edit]Analgesic property

Coffee contains caffeine, which increases the effectiveness of pain killers, especially migraine and headache medications.[16] For this reason, many over-the-counter headache drugs include caffeine in their formula.


Coffee intake may reduce one’s risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 by up to half. While this was originally noticed in patients who consumed high amounts (7 cups a day), the relationship was later shown to be linear.[17][18]

[edit]Liver protection

Coffee can also reduce the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver[19] and has been linked to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, a primary liver cancer that usually arises in patients with preexisting cirrhosis.[20] The exact mechanism and the amount of coffee needed to achieve a beneficial effect have long been unclear.[21] The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) beta has long been recognized for promoting fibrosis ability acting through the Smad family of transcription factors. In a report published in the Journal of Hepatology, Gressner and colleagues provide the first mechanistic context for the epidemiological studies on coffee drinkers by showing that caffeine may have potent anti-fibrotic capabilities through its ability to antagonize the Smad pathway.[22]


Coffee consumption is also correlated in Africa to a reduced risk of oralesophageal, and pharyngeal cancer.[23][24] In ovarian cancer, no benefit was found.[25] In the Nurses’ Health Study, a modest reduction in breast cancer was observed in postmenopausal women only, which was not confirmed in decaffeinated coffee,[26] and a reduction in endometrial cancer was observed in people who drank either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee.[27] According to one study, coffee protects the liver from cancer.[28] Another preliminary study found a correlation between coffee consumption and a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer.[29]


Coffee moderately reduces the incidence of dying from cardiovascular disease, according to a large prospective cohort study published in 2008.[30] A 2009 prospective study in Japan following nearly 77,000 individuals aged 40 to 79 found that coffee consumption, along with caffeine intake, was associated with a reduced risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.[31]


Coffee is also a powerful stimulant for peristalsis and is sometimes considered to prevent constipation. However, coffee can also cause excessively loose bowel movements. The stimulative effect of coffee consumption on the colon is found in both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee.[32][33]

Contrary to popular belief, caffeine does not act as a diuretic when consumed in moderation (less than five cups a day or 500 to 600 milligrams), and does not lead to dehydration or to a water-electrolyte imbalance; current evidence suggests that caffeinated beverages contribute to the body’s daily fluid requirements no differently from pure water.[34][35][36][37]


Coffee contains the anticancer compound methylpyridinium. This compound is not present in significant amounts in other foods. Methylpyridinium is not present in raw coffee beans but is formed during the roasting process from trigonelline, which is common in raw coffee beans. It is present in both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, and even in instant coffee.[38] Research funded by Kraft shows that roast coffee contains more lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones and is more protective against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in primary neuronal cells than green coffee.[10] The espresso method of extraction yields higher antioxidant activity than other brewing methods.[39]

[edit]Prevention of dental caries

The tannins in coffee may reduce the cariogenic potential of foods. In vitro experiments have shown that these polyphenolic compounds may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of mutans streptococci, which may reduce plaque formation.[40]


Coffee consumption decreased risk of gout in men over age 40. In a large study of over 45,000 men over a 12-year period, the risk for developing gout in men over 40 was inversely proportional with the amount of coffee consumed.[41]

[edit]Blood pressure

A 2011 study showed that moderate (≥4 cups per day) coffee consumption was inversely associated with high blood pressure and high triglyceride level in Japanese men.[42] However, the study showed no significant association between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome for Japanese women.[42]


[edit]Caffeine dependency


Over 1,000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee, and 19 are known rodent carcinogens;[43] however, most substances cited as rodent carcinogens occur naturally and should not be assumed to be carcinogenic in humans at exposure levels typically experienced in day-to-day life.[43]

[edit]Gastrointestinal problems

Coffee can damage the lining of the gastrointestinal organs, causing gastritis and ulcers. The consumption of coffee is therefore not recommended for people with gastritis, colitis, and ulcers.[44]

[edit]Psychological effects and sleep changes

Many coffee drinkers are familiar with “coffee jitters”, a nervous condition that occurs when one has had too much caffeine. It can also cause anxiety and irritability, in some with excessive coffee consumption, and some as a withdrawal symptom.[45]. Coffee can also cause insomnia in some. In others it can cause narcolepsy.[46]

Caffeine, a major component of coffee, has various psychological effects[47]


2007 study by the Baylor College of Medicine indicates that the diterpene molecules cafestol and kahweol, found only in coffee beans, may raise levels of low-density lipoprotein or LDL in humans.[48] This increase in LDL levels is an indicator that coffee raises cholesterol. The Baylor study suggests a possible link between cafestol, kahweol and higher levels of cholesterol in the body.

Paper coffee filters have a property that binds to lipid-like compounds which allows the filter to remove most of the cafestol and kahweol found in coffee. Brew methods which do not use a paper filter, such as the use of a press pot, do not remove cafestol and kahweol from the final brewed product.[49][50]

[edit]Blood pressure

Caffeine has previously been implicated in increasing the risk of high blood pressure; however, recent studies have not confirmed any association. In a 12-year study of 155,000 female nurses, large amounts of coffee did not induce a “risky rise in blood pressure”[51] .[52] Previous studies had already shown statistically insignificant associations between coffee drinking and clinical hypertension. Effect of coffee on morbidity and mortality due to its effect on blood pressure is too weak, and has not been studied. Other positive and negative effects of coffee on health would be difficult confounding factors.[1]

[edit]Effects on pregnancy

Caffeine molecules are small enough to penetrate the placenta and slip into the baby’s blood circulation. Unlike adults, organs and systems in fetuses are not full-fledged, therefore not capable of fully metabolizing caffeine and excreting it. The stimulant tends to linger in the fetus’s blood ten times longer than in adults. High levels of caffeine are bound to accumulate in the baby’s body with frequent maternal consumption of caffeine. Just like what it does to adults, caffeine could also send the baby’s pulse and breathing rate racing and affect its sleep pattern for an extended duration.[53]

A February 2003 Danish study of 18,478 women linked heavy coffee consumption during pregnancy to significantly increased risk of stillbirths (but no significantly increased risk of infant death in the first year). “The results seem to indicate a threshold effect around four to seven cups per day,” the study reported. Those who drank eight or more cups a day (64 U.S. fl oz or 1.89 L) were at 220% increased risk compared with nondrinkers. This study has not yet been repeated, but has caused some doctors to caution against excessive coffee consumption during pregnancy.[54]

Decaffeinated coffee is also regarded as a potential health risk to pregnant women when chemical solvents are used to extract the caffeine instead of other less invasive processes. The impact of these chemicals is debated, however, as the solvents in question evaporate at 80–90 °C, and coffee beans are decaffeinated before roasting, which occurs at approximately 200 °C. As such, these chemicals, namely trichloroethane and methylene chloride, are present in trace amounts at most, and may not pose a significant threat to embryos and fetuses.[citation needed]

[edit]Iron deficiency anemia

Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants.[55] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron.[56]

[edit]Coronary artery disease

A 2004 study tried to discover why the beneficial and detrimental effects of coffee conflict. The study concluded that consumption of coffee is associated with significant elevations in biochemical markers of inflammation. This is a detrimental effect of coffee on the cardiovascular system, which may explain why coffee has so far only been shown to help the heart at levels of four cups (24 fl oz or 600 mL) or fewer per day.[57]

The health risks of decaffeinated coffee have been studied, with varying results. One variable is the type of decaffeination process used; while some involve the use of organic solvents which may leave residual traces, others rely on steam.[citation needed]

A study has shown that cafestol, a substance which is present in boiled coffee drinks, increases serum cholesterol levels, especially in women. Filtered coffee contains only trace amounts of cafestol.

Polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene may lead to a slower metabolism of caffeine. In patients with a slow version of the enzyme the risk for myocardial infarction (heart attack) is increased by a third (2–3 cups) to two thirds (>4 cups). The risk was more marked in people under the age of 59.[58]

A Harvard study conducted over the course of 20 years of 128,000 people published in 2006 concluded that there was no evidence to support the claim that coffee consumption itself increases the risk of coronary heart disease. The study did, however, show a correlation between heavy consumption of coffee and higher degrees of exposure to other coronary heart disease risk factors such as smoking, greater alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise.[59] The results apply only to coffee filtered through paper filters, which excludes boiled coffee and espresso, for example. Additionally, the lead researcher on this study acknowledged that subsets of the larger group may be at risk for heart attack when drinking multiple cups of coffee a day due to genetic differences in metabolizing caffeine.[citation needed]

The Iowa Women’s Health Study showed that women who consumed coffee actually had fewer cardiovascular disease incidents and lower cancer rates than the general population. For women who drank 6 or more cups, the benefit was even greater. However, this study excluded 35% of its original participants who already had cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases when the study began. Since participants were all over the age of 55, no good conclusion can be drawn about the long term effect of coffee drinking on heart disease from this study.[60]

[edit]Interactions with medications

Caffeine with Tylenol (Paracetamol, acetaminophen ) may damage liver.[61]

[edit]See also


  1. a b Klag MJ, Wang NY, Meoni LA, et al. (March 2002). “Coffee intake and risk of hypertension: the Johns Hopkins precursors study”. Archives of Internal Medicine 162 (6): 657–62.DOI:10.1001/archinte.162.6.657PMID 11911719.
  2. ^ “Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality”. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  3. ^ Stein, Rob (16 May 2012). “Can Coffee Help You Live Longer? We Really Want To Know”NPR. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  4. a b c Brown, C. A.; Bolton-Smith, C.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H. (1993). “Coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study”. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 47 (3): 171.DOI:10.1136/jech.47.3.171edit [1]
  5. ^ Maia, L.; de Mendonça, A. (July 2002). “Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer’s disease?”. European Journal of Neurology 9 (4): 377. DOI:10.1046/j.1468-1331.2002.00421.x.
  6. ^ Lindsay, J.; et al. (2002). “Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Prospective Analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging”. Am J Epidemiol 156 (5): 445–453.DOI:10.1093/aje/kwf074.
  7. ^ “Midlife Coffee And Tea Drinking May Protect Against Late-Life Dementia”ScienceDaily. January 15, 2009.
  8. ^ Leitzmann, M. F.; et al. (1999). “A prospective study of coffee consumption and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men”. JAMA 281: 2106–12. DOI:10.1001/jama.281.22.2106.
  9. ^ Leitzmann, M. F.; et al. (2002). “Coffee intake is associated with lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in women”.Gastroenterology 123 (6): 1823–30.DOI:10.1053/gast.2002.37054.
  10. a b Chu, YF et al., Yi-Fang; Brown, Peter H.; Lyle, Barbara J.; Chen, Yumin; Black, Richard M.; Williams, Claire E.; Lin, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Wei et al. (2009). “Roasted coffees high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones are more neuroprotective than green coffees”Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (20): 9801–9808.DOI:10.1021/jf902095zPMID 19772322. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  11. ^ Webster Ross, G. et al., Association of Coffee and Caffeine Intake With the Risk of Parkinson Disease, JAMA, May 24, 2000, 283:20, ([2] accessed Nov 30, 2006)
  12. ^ Benedetti M.D. et al., Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson’s disease, Neurology, 2000:55, 1350–1358. ([3] accessed Nov 30, 2006)
  13. ^ Koppelstaeter F, Siedentopf C, Poeppel T, Haala I, Ischebeck A, Mottaghy F. Influence of caffeine =excess on activation patterns in verbal working memory. Radiological Society of North America, 2005, abstract no LPR06-05 link.
  14. ^ Jarvis, M.J., Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance?, Psychopharmacology, 2 December 2005, 110:1–2, 45–52. ([4] accessed Nov 30, 2005).
  15. ^ Johnson-Kozlow, M., et al., Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function among Older Adults, Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156:842–850 ([5] accessed Nov 30, 2006)
  16. ^ “Headache Triggers: Caffeine”. WebMD. June 2004. Retrieved 2006-08-14.
  17. ^ Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, et al. (January 2004). “Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Ann. Intern. Med. 140 (1): 1–8. PMID 14706966.
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